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Antibiotics " Against life , from a greek word "

What is :

qh - quaque hora ( means every hour )

qd - quaque die ( every day )

qid - quater in die ( four times a day )

tds - ter die sine ( three times a day )

prn - pro re nata ( as or when required )

ql - quantum libet ( as much as desired ) --- rarely used in dentistry

bd / bid - bis in die ( twice daily )

What is a drug : " Drug is any substance or product that is used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological systems or pathololgical states for the benefit of the recipient "

Routes of Drug administration : routes can be broadly divided into those for local action and those for systemic action .

Local

  • Topical - Skin , mucous membranes ( mouth and pharynx , eyes , ears and nose , GIT , bronchi and lungs , urethra , vagina , anal canal . Deeper tissues : ( using injections) - Intra artricular injection , intrathecal injection , retrobulbar injection or arterial supply
  • Systemic - Oral , sublingual / buccal , rectal , cutaneous , inhalational , nasal , parenteral ( subcutaneous : Dermojet , Pocket implantation , sialiastic , intramuscular , IV or interdermal . 

Antimicrobial drugs - these are drugs designed to inhibit/kill the infecting organixm and to have no/minimal effect on the recipient .

Antibiotics : Subtances produced by microorganisms , which suppress the frowth or kill other microrganisms but are produced by the microbes but are needed in high concentration .

Chemotherapeutic agents : General term that refers to the ability of an active chemical substance to provide therapeutic clinical benefits

Antiseptics : Chemical antimicribial agents that are applied topically or subgingivally to mucous membranes , wounds , or intact dermal surfaces to destroy microorganisms and inhibit their production or metabolism .

Disinfectants : A subcategory of antiseptics , are antimicrobial agents that are generally applied to inanimate surfaces to destroy microorganisms .

Antibiotics commonly used :

  1. Tetracycline ( bacteriostatic ) / Broad spectrum -First introduced as " Aureomycin " in 1948
    -tetracyclines are avoided because of it's side effects and high interval doses .
    -Doxycycline is used instead , 100mg ( db ) loading does , after that 100mg ( mds ) , to avoid gastric upset ( give 50 mg ( db )
  2. Penicillins ( Bacteriocidal ) - Amoxicillin ( 500 mg , tds ) , ( 250 mg ) for kids .
    -They are highly susceptible to beta-lactamases ( therefore sometimes augmentin ( clavulanic acid ))
    -Amoxicillins are semi-synthetic , also affect gram -ve and all gram +ve , well absorbed orally and can penetrate the GCF
  3. Clindamycin ( both bacteriocidal and static ) - dosage is (4x300mg) for 7-10 days
    - note of it's adverse effects : pseudomembranous collitis , diarrhea and cramps
    -therefore , metronidazole is used instead usually
  4. Ciproflaxin -( 500mg ( bd ) , 5-7 days )
    -it enhance the effect of warfarin or anticoagulants ( bleeding problems )
  5. Macrolides ( Bacteriocidal  ) -Axithromycin ( 500mg md )
    -effective against anaerobse and gram -ve bacilli
  6. Metronidazole ( Bacteriocidal ) -Treats most peridontal cases
    -can be used as a mono therapy or adjunct to other antibiotics
    -250mg tds for 7 days , adverse effects includes gastric upset and antabuse effect when alcohol is ingested .

 

 

 

 

 

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