Antibiotics " Against life , from a greek word "
What is :
qh - quaque hora ( means every hour )
qd - quaque die ( every day )
qid - quater in die ( four times a day )
tds - ter die sine ( three times a day )
prn - pro re nata ( as or when required )
ql - quantum libet ( as much as desired ) --- rarely used in dentistry
bd / bid - bis in die ( twice daily )
What is a drug : " Drug is any substance or product that is used or intended to be used to modify or explore physiological systems or pathololgical states for the benefit of the recipient "
Routes of Drug administration : routes can be broadly divided into those for local action and those for systemic action .
- Topical - Skin , mucous membranes ( mouth and pharynx , eyes , ears and nose , GIT , bronchi and lungs , urethra , vagina , anal canal . Deeper tissues : ( using injections) - Intra artricular injection , intrathecal injection , retrobulbar injection or arterial supply
- Systemic - Oral , sublingual / buccal , rectal , cutaneous , inhalational , nasal , parenteral ( subcutaneous : Dermojet , Pocket implantation , sialiastic , intramuscular , IV or interdermal .
Antimicrobial drugs - these are drugs designed to inhibit/kill the infecting organixm and to have no/minimal effect on the recipient .
Antibiotics : Subtances produced by microorganisms , which suppress the frowth or kill other microrganisms but are produced by the microbes but are needed in high concentration .
Chemotherapeutic agents : General term that refers to the ability of an active chemical substance to provide therapeutic clinical benefits
Antiseptics : Chemical antimicribial agents that are applied topically or subgingivally to mucous membranes , wounds , or intact dermal surfaces to destroy microorganisms and inhibit their production or metabolism .
Disinfectants : A subcategory of antiseptics , are antimicrobial agents that are generally applied to inanimate surfaces to destroy microorganisms .
Antibiotics commonly used :
- Tetracycline ( bacteriostatic ) / Broad spectrum -First introduced as " Aureomycin " in 1948
-tetracyclines are avoided because of it's side effects and high interval doses .
-Doxycycline is used instead , 100mg ( db ) loading does , after that 100mg ( mds ) , to avoid gastric upset ( give 50 mg ( db )
- Penicillins ( Bacteriocidal ) - Amoxicillin ( 500 mg , tds ) , ( 250 mg ) for kids .
-They are highly susceptible to beta-lactamases ( therefore sometimes augmentin ( clavulanic acid ))
-Amoxicillins are semi-synthetic , also affect gram -ve and all gram +ve , well absorbed orally and can penetrate the GCF
- Clindamycin ( both bacteriocidal and static ) - dosage is (4x300mg) for 7-10 days
- note of it's adverse effects : pseudomembranous collitis , diarrhea and cramps
-therefore , metronidazole is used instead usually
- Ciproflaxin -( 500mg ( bd ) , 5-7 days )
-it enhance the effect of warfarin or anticoagulants ( bleeding problems )
- Macrolides ( Bacteriocidal ) -Axithromycin ( 500mg md )
-effective against anaerobse and gram -ve bacilli
- Metronidazole ( Bacteriocidal ) -Treats most peridontal cases
-can be used as a mono therapy or adjunct to other antibiotics
-250mg tds for 7 days , adverse effects includes gastric upset and antabuse effect when alcohol is ingested .